Our topic of discussion is Refrigerant used in AC which is actually Coolant liquid refrigerant, commonly called antifreeze. Basically it is a mixture of ethylene and water or propylene glycol and water in 50/50 ratio. Coolant is a special fluid with additives, because it has to remain liquid at very low temperatures (below 0°C) but must not evaporate at high-temperatures (above 100°C). 

Definition of Coolant liquid refrigerant :

 A fluid which flows through or around a mechanical device like AC to prevent its overheating by transferring the produced heat to other devices is called coolant liquid refrigerant. The coolant absorbs the heat from the machine and then eventually dissipates it through the radiator. 

Properties of an ideal Refrigerant used in AC:

  1. High thermal capacity, 
  2. Low viscosity
  3. Non-toxic
  4. Chemically inert

Types of Refrigerant used in AC:

There are mainly 3 types of antifreeze used in air conditioner.

  1. GREEN  COOLANT: These are the oldest types of antifreeze. They are mostly used in North America. They are made of silicate and phosphate composition which is used to provide protection for aluminum and iron surfaces.
  2. OAT COOLANT: Full form of OAT is Organic Acid Technology.  OAT coolant contains ingredients such as 2-EHA and various kinds of organic acids. They generally do not contain silicates or phosphates compounds.
  3. HOAT COOLANT: HOAT meant Hybrid OAT. They contain organic acids except for 2-EHA. Also, silicates are provided to make protection for aluminum surfaces.

Nowadays, antifreeze manufacturers are creating “universal antifreeze” which can be used with all types of mechanisms.

WARNING: It is very much important to know about a coolant used in an AC because the unit of current is very much dependent on a coolant.

Important features of Refrigerant Used In AC:

Coolant is very much vital for the mechanical operation of the Air Conditioner and engine. Modern antifreeze needs the following features.

  1. Corrosion prevention 
  2. High-quality heat transfer 
  3. Firm protection from freezing 
  4. Scale build-up prevention 
  5. Compatibility with hard water 
  6. Stability at a flexible temperature
  7. Low foaming 
Refrigerant used in AC

Refrigerant R-32 Vs R-410A In Air Conditioner

It is a very much confusing topic to choose between R-32 and R-410A to all. Well, let’s try to clear the confusion and make an R-32 Vs R-410A comparison. Firstly we have to know what their definitions are.

Refrigerant R-32

R-32 is a very important coolant among refrigerants used in AC. Its Formula is CH2F2 or R32, Halocarbon 32 and it is named Difluoromethane. It is shipped as a liquefied gas and used in AC. It is a Plating agent and surface treating element which has a power of Plasma etching.

Refrigerant R-410A

R410A is a Hydrofluorocarbon blend. R-410A carries copper oxides through the system. These have the potential to clog thermostatic expansion valves and further the need for annual maintenance of any AC.

R-32 Vs R-410A

  1. R32 has a lower GWP of 675, roughly 30% lower than R410A.[GWP: Global Warming Potential]
  2. R32 systems use up to 20% less content refrigerant than R410A does. It makes them a more efficient low-cost operating system.
  3. Ozone Depletion Potential of R-32 can be called as 0. But R-410A can make a chance to make a hole in the ozone layer.
  4. R32 is a single component refrigerant. So it is easier to recycle than the R410A coolant. 

Nowadays, most of the high-level Air conditioners of the leading companies are using R32 eco-friendly refrigerants such as Daikin, Toshiba, Hitachi, Fujitsu, Panasonic, Mitsubishi, and Sharp.

So, we can say that the R-32 Vs R-410A clash goes to R-32 refrigerant..

Refrigerant Used In AC R-290 In

R290: R290 which is known as CARE 40 is a refrigerant grade named propane, a natural refrigerant suitable for use in any range of refrigeration and air conditioning applications and machines. The use of R290 is nowadays increasing due to its low GWP, low environmental impact and extreme level of excellent thermodynamic performance. This is also non-toxic with zero ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) because of very low GWP (Global Warming Potential). Though It is a flammable refrigerant and therefore it is not suitable for any retrofitting existing fluorocarbon machinery refrigerant systems.

The most environmentally friendly refrigerant used in Air Conditioners in India is R290 which is actually Propane. The GWP of R-290 refrigerant is 3 and has zero possibility of harming the ozone layer. R-29 refrigerant is highly energy-efficient and is the greenest refrigerant. Though Hydrocarbons and Hydrofluorocarbons are highly flammable.

New Model Of R-290 Air Conditioner

The introduction of R-290 based air-conditioners is an important step to reducing energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions from the machines. The new model of R-290 Air Conditioner models is very much environment friendly and is being launched in various cities of India. Godrej service technicians have been very specifically trained for the R-290 Air Conditioner technology, safe installation, and maintenance. It gives a superior performance at high ambient and can save 23% more energy than any other high rated top of the line product ACs.
R-290 (propane) technology is a very much suitable alternative for climate-friendly air conditioning. Even in high ambient temperature, it can condition the air at low cost and less energy. It is designed on the basis of European and International safety standards and maintains the level of goodness. The newly developed R-290 Air Conditioner encompasses the highest green AC efficiency and highest energy efficiency in standard AC class.


  1. Which brand is using r290 refrigerant in Indian AC?

Ans: Godrej is the only brand in India who makes high-quality R290 Refrigerant. ACS are the most efficient and power saving. They are also the greenest.

  1. Can r290 replace r410a?

Ans: Nowadays, a new refrigerant mixture made of R32 and R290 with a ratio of 68:32 are used in AC. It can be used in replacement for R410A. It can be used in household air conditioners. Utilizing the mixed refrigerant makes the GWP lower than R410A, approx 22% less than R410A.

  1. What is the most toxic refrigerant?

Ans: The most common refrigerant which is toxic is Ammonia. It would generally find it in old appliances and machinery or in large industrial usages.

  1. What is the difference between antifreeze r32 and r410a?

Ans: R32 has a lower GWP of 675 which is 30% lower than R410A. The R32 system uses approximately 20% less refrigerant than R410A and it costs low. Ozone Depletion Potential of R32 is 0. R32 is also easy to recycle and reuse.

  1. Is the refrigerant R-32 flammable?

Ans: R32 is a lower flammability category refrigerant.  It also can lie in a class 2L mildly flammability category.

  1. What are the four stages of refrigeration?

Ans: The Vapor Compression of Refrigeration Cycle has four components and is called the four-stage refrigeration. The steps are compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. It is actually a compression process which can raise the refrigerant pressure.

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